Paterson called time on a Scotland career which began against Spain in the 1999 World Cup and ended against England in New Zealand in October at his fourth tournament, and featured a record 109 caps and 809 points.
Robinson said: "What a fantastic career Chris has had for Scotland. He should be celebrated as one of Scotland's greatest ever internationalists.
"I respect his decision and thank him for all he has done. Having coached against him, he was a player I always ear-marked as a real threat.
"Coaching him has been a delight, primarily because of his many attributes, not least that constant desire to get better."
Paterson, nicknamed 'Mossy', will be 34 in March and is set to play on with Edinburgh until the end of the season, with the option of a further year's contract.
He appeared at fly-half, wing and full-back and surpassed Gavin Hastings as Scotland's leading points scorer and Scott Murray's cap record on the 2008 tour to Argentina.
He captained Scotland on 12 occasions between 2004 and 2007, won his 100th cap in February 2010 against Wales and his 809-point haul includes 22 tries, 170 penalties, 90 conversions and three drop goals.
Gregor Townsend, the second most-capped Scotland back and Scotland attack coach, lauded Paterson's personal characteristics which carried him to the top of the game, but also allowed him to remain grounded.
Townsend also compared Paterson to Jonny Wilkinson, who recently announced the end of his international career with England.
Townsend said: "When I think of Chris, the words professionalism, competitor and humility are closely linked to how he has conducted himself over his illustrious career.
"I'd also add inspirational, as I can only imagine the many thousands of kids that have taken up the game in Scotland thanks to his exploits on the field and his exemplary demeanour off the field.
"It is apt that two of the best goal-kickers in world rugby have announced their retirements from international rugby so close together."
Edinburgh and Scotland scrum-half Mike Blair said: "I regard myself as being very fortunate to have played the vast majority of my professional rugby career with Mossy for Edinburgh and Scotland.
"He is an incredibly competitive guy who still tops most fitness tests and I think it's great that he has been able to retire right at the top of the game."
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