Knight is set to bolster the club's front-row reserves while several members of the squad are on international duty with Scotland at the World Cup in New Zealand.
He said: "I found out that Edinburgh Rugby wanted a tight-head and jumped at the chance to get some game time in the RaboDirect PRO12 and play a high standard of rugby for a well-known team.
"Every young prop wants to develop their scrummaging against experienced front-rows so this loan spell gives me the chance to take on some real quality, international players.
"I also like to handle the ball which is perfect because I know that Edinburgh play an expansive game.
"It all happened really fast but since I arrived I've been made to feel really welcome by the players."
Head coach Michael Bradley said: "With our entire first-string front row in the Scotland squad in New Zealand, Shaun provides invaluable cover during a crucial six-week period of the Rugby World Cup.
"He's a very talented young athlete with a bright future in the front row and has displayed, in his performances for England Under-20 and for Gloucester, experience, talent and grit beyond his years.
"I'm certain he will be an asset for Edinburgh Rugby in this short but critical time."
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