The 25-year-old has been handed the honour following the departure of Wales lock Charteris to French side Perpignan.
Evans came through the age-grade system at the Dragons, captaining their Under-20s, and was included in the full Wales squad for last December's Millennium Stadium meeting with Australia.
He will form an imposing back-row triumvirate with Wales stars Dan Lydiate and Toby Faletau, but Evans knows he still has to prove himself worthy of selection with the likes of flanker Darren Waters eager for a first-team spot.
"Captaining doesn't always guarantee selection and I know that it's going to be tough this season with the Welsh boys in the side and Darren on my tail," he said.
"I want to ensure that I'm selected on my own merit and if I want to be pushing for international selection I need to be able to stand up alongside the best.
"Like most young players I aspired to captain the regional side, but to be doing it at a young age is more than I would have dreamed of. Having said that, we know what our goals are - to make Rodney Parade a fortress and pick up those crucial wins on the road so I'm as focused as ever on the job in hand."
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