The 26-year-old, who was born in Exeter but has a Welsh grandmother, would replace an injured Adam Jones.
Wales also have an option of switching Bath's Paul James from his favoured loosehead prop berth to tighthead, but Jarvis could be the solitary uncapped player in interim head coach Rob Howley's team.
James and Toulon's Gethin Jenkins, who both missed last week's Wales training trip to Poland because of club commitments, linked up with the national squad on Monday.
Howley could start with 90 times-capped Jenkins, whose first team opportunities at Toulon have been limited this season, and switch James, or go for Jarvis ahead of fellow rookies Scott Andrews and Samson Lee.
"All three of them (Jarvis, Andrews and Lee) have more than held their own in the gym and with the amount of work we did on the training field (in Poland)," Wales forwards coach Robin McBryde said.
"We need to increase our strength in depth. And also because of the law changes at international level where you can now carry a full front-row (on the bench), you don't need a player who can cover both sides, so you need that specialist tighthead.
"Age shouldn't come into it, really, If you are good enough, you are old enough."
Former Wales captain Ryan Jones has joined Adam Jones and flanker Dan Lydiate in being ruled out of the Argentina fixture.
But unlike his two colleagues, experienced back-row operator Jones is confidently expected to play a part in the four-match schedule and could return against Samoa on November 16.
The trio boast 177 caps between them, with Ryan Jones the obvious replacement for Lydiate, but Wales' number six shirt against Argentina now appears likely to be filled by Rob McCusker or his Scarlets colleague Aaron Shingler.
Jones flew home early from the Poland training camp to undergo scans on his shoulder, and he will now sit out the Pumas encounter.
"We were aware Ryan had a niggle with his shoulder coming out to Poland, so we thought it would be wise to get in there early and investigate if it was anything serious," McBryde added.
"Happily enough that isn't the case, but it is a case of doing quite a bit of rehab work for the remainder of this week in order for him to be fit for next week's match against Samoa, which is positive news.
"It is well-chronicled on how valuable a player Ryan is, not only for Wales, but the Ospreys as well.
"Even though he is not involved in on-field training this week, he is around the players and sharing some of his experience."
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