Bath flanker Francois Louw and Stormers centre Juan de Jongh have also been included, with the Springboks set to face Australia in Perth on September 8 and New Zealand in Dunedin seven days later.
Stormers No.8 Vermeulen and Cheetahs fly-half Goosen had seen involvement in the squad delayed due to injury, but Meyer is confident the duo are ready to go.
Meyer said: "Injuries meant we could not use Duane and Johan earlier in the season, but both have played Absa Currie Cup rugby since their return and after consultation with their respective provincial medical teams, we're confident that they are ready to travel with us.
"While Duane and Johan are medically fit, their provincial coaches felt it necessary that they get more game time in the Absa Currie Cup this weekend, but as we don't have a lot of time to prepare and we need as much time with them as possible to get them used to our structures and game plans, the decision was taken to select them for the tour.
"I regard both of them as world-class rugby players. If it wasn't for injuries, Duane would have been a Springbok long ago. I also believe Johan has a long career ahead of him at Test match level and we will expose him when and how we feel it will benefit the player and the team best."
De Jongh comes into the squad to provide cover to the backs, while Louw gets his chance due to the absences of Siya Kolisi, Heinrich Brussow and Schalk Burger.
"Both Juan and Francois played at the Rugby World Cup last year and are experienced players," added Meyer.
"Juan covers both positions in the midfield and we opted for Francois because he is a specialist openside flanker, in the absence of Schalk, Heinrich and Siya, that can cover blindside and No 8 as well, while he is also a very useful option in the lineout."
South Africa: Willem Alberts, Andries Bekker, Craig Burden, Pat Cilliers, Marcell Coetzee, Juan de Jongh, Jean de Villiers (capt), Jannie du Plessis, Eben Etzebeth, Johan Goosen, Dean Greyling, Bryan Habana, Francois Hougaard, Zane Kirchner, Juandre Kruger, Pat Lambie, Tiaan Liebenberg, Francois Louw, Tendai Mtawarira, Lwazi Mvovo, Ruan Pienaar, Jacques Potgieter, Frans Steyn, Morne, Adriaan Strauss, Flip van der Merwe, Jano Vermaak, Duane Vermeulen.
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